There is no fabrication in the fact that the constant badgering of the human brain owing to the amount of pressure that is laden upon it, leads it to malfunction, causes it to crumble and dissipate into a thousand pieces and overstretches its dimensions. In this day and age, when viewing the academic sphere from a student’s point of view, it becomes quite evident and clear that it is warped and detached from seeking sanity and rationality. Students, in particular, are coerced and pressured into writing out elaborate academic papers, both in the word count they demand and in the sort of thought process and celebration they necessitate. Not only these students are required to write out these papers aimlessly, but they are also required to format them adequately, in order to avoid the tag of ‘plagiarism’ to be associated with their paper. The accurate formatting and citing of the paper are of paramount importance, as once students integrate such habits into their writing, they therefore instantaneously abolish the imprints and keynotes of intellectual laziness, nebulous thinking, and half-baked writing. Through this practice, students can develop and cement their vantage point into the minds of their reader, as opposed to leaving them iffy about the point they are trying to articulate.
When discussing referencing and citation styles, Harvard referencing tends to pop up immediately, as it is utilized extensively across a diverse range of subjects and disciplines. Therefore, it only makes sense to delve into and uncover the layers that go into structuring a paper as Harvard referencing.
It can be established now that different referencing styles have different rules and disparate types of citations. Harvard referencing, specifically has two forms of citations:
- In-text citations: The citations are present and sewed together with the main body of the content, and they contain a select portion of the full bibliographical information.
- Reference Lists: The citations are compartmentalized and placed at the end of the document, whereby they contain full bibliographical information about each source confined within the content.
When writing out their academic papers, students are allowed and are given the liberty to make use of any source that is at their disposal. A significantly larger proportion of individuals make use of books. Thus, students must comprehend how to cite their book sources accurately, and they should know the difference between citing sources with one author, or with multiple authors.
Citations for a book with one author:
Format: Last name, first initial. (Year). Title. Edition (if not the first edition of the book). City of publication: Publisher.
Example: Lee, H. (1960). To Kill a Mockingbird. New York. Warner Books, Inc.
Citations for books with two or three authors:
Format: Last name, first initial., Last name, first initial., and Last name, first initial. (Year). Title. City of publication: Publisher.
Example: Gaiman, N. and Pratchett, T. (1990). Good Omens. London. Gollancz.
Citations for different books by the same author:
When utilizing and sourcing information from different books but of the same author, then the student must differentiate the citations by the year. They should lay down and list the citations onto the paper in chronological order of their publication. Moreover, if the student is making use of work published in the same year by the same author, then they should place ‘a’,’b’,’c’ after they mention the year.
Format: Last name, first initial. (Year). Title. City of publication: Publisher.
Example: Sheldon, S. (1982). Master of the Game. New York. Grand Central Publishing
Sheldon, S. (1985). If Tomorrow Comes. New York. Grand Central Publishing
Sheldon, S. (1998). Tell Me Your Dreams. New York. William Morrow and Company
We are living in an era that is digitally charged and technologically permeated. As a consequence, students today are not restricted or constricted in any of their choices, and therefore their landscape for choosing resources has widened exponentially. With that being said, students need to learn and inundate themselves with information regarding the proper citation of online sources.
When citing online sources or websites, it is imperative for the student to determine the authorship of the content or the website. If the student has found their source from a website, which doesn’t belong to a newspaper or a journal, then the authorship should be accredited to the individual writer. If, on the other hand, the website belongs to a particular organization an organization, then they should be duly credited.
Format: Author (Year). Title of web document/page. [online]. (Last updated: if this information is available). Available at: URL [Accessed date: Day/Month/Year]
Example: Same Knight (2018) In the Trenches with the True Brexit Believers. [online]. https://www.newyorker.com/news/letter-from-the-uk/in-the-trenches-with-the-true-brexit-believers [Accessed date: 12th November 2018]
Citations For Social Media:
The reservoirs and pools from where students can extract information and data for the layering of their content are broad-spectrum. In the 21st century, various disciplines demand the exploration of different facets of social media and therefore emerges the need of the student to draw information from social media platforms.
Format: Last name of the author, First initial. (Year). Title of page [Social media format]. Day/month/year written. Available from: URL. [Accessed: Day/Month/Year].
Example: Kelly, K. (2016). Growing political dissent [Twitter]. Written 8th July 2016. Available From: *insert URL*. [Accessed: 12th November 2018]
Students can draw inspiration or literary influences from just about anywhere, and acquiring fundamental and supporting evidence from scholarly articles is a great way of incorporating intellectual ideas and perspectives into their work.
Citations for Print Journals:
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year). Article Title. Journal name, Volume (Issue), Page/s.
Example: Richards, L. (2002) Unusual Recipes and Japanese Cuisine, Gastronomic Research, Volume 4 (2), pp. 22-28
Citations For Newspaper Article- Both Online & Print
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year). Article title. Newspaper name, Page/s.
Example: Lakhani, N. (2018). A woman who bore rapist’s baby faces 20 years in El Salvador jail. The Guardian, p. 2
Citations For Magazine Articles – Both Online & Print
(Print)Format: Last name, First initial. (Year). Article title. Magazine name, volume number, Page/s.
(Online) Format: Last name, First initial. (Year, Month Day). Article Title. Magazine name, [online] Page/s. Retrieved from: URL
(Online)Example: Feller, M. (2018, November 07) Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez Will Officially Become the Youngest Congresswoman Ever. Elle, [Online] Retrieved From https://www.elle.com/culture/career-politics/a24185633/who-is-alexandria-ocasio-cortez-wins-youngest-congresswoman-new-york/
The monotony associated with the written content is widely accepted and noted, therefore, in such cases, visual content injects revitalization, innovation and a sense of balance into the content, which is otherwise missing. This sort of content is more likely to connect, engage and stimulate the senses of the reader, and it is hence more likely to forge a link with the reader’s thought process.
Citations For Movies/ DVDs And Videos:
Format: Full Title of Film/Video/DVD. Year of release. [Type of medium]. Director. Country of Origin: Film studio or maker.
Example: Good Will Hunting. 1997. [Film]. Gus Van Sant. USA. Be Gentlemen.
Citations For YouTube Videos:
It is a technologically paced and driven era, and therefore it is only plausible for students to shift their paradigm of researching, and therefore look towards novel avenues of acquiring information. YouTube, is a search engine and a video sharing website, whereby students can gain access to videos that are not only informative but also constructive and imaginative in their approach.
Format: Username of the contributor. (Year). Video Title, Series Title (if relevant). [type of medium]. Available at: URL. [Accessed: Day/ Month/ Year]
Example: Linus Tech Tips. (2018). BIZARRE Intel Core i7 from CHINA for $100!!. [YouTube Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tvXfgdyQxPQ. [Accessed: Monday/November/ 2018]
Citations For Maps:
Format: Map maker’s name. (Year of the issue). Title of the map. Map series, sheet number, scale. Place of publication: publisher.
Example: Oranges Mile. (2018). Map Of Manchester. *insert series number*,*insert sheet number*, *scale*, London, Local Publications.
Miscellaneous Source Types:
Other than the sources mentioned above, there are myriad ranges of sources that can be utilized to ameliorate the narrative placed on your content, to enhance the readability and to back up your conjured ideas.
Citation For Reports:
Format: Organisation/author. (Year). The full title of the report. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example: Jones & Charles. (2016). A report on increasing sea water levels. London: B&K Publications
Citations For Acts Of Parliament:
Law students, in particular, have to incorporate and integrate the latest regulated acts and laws into their narrative, to taper its fringes (clear out anecdotal statements) and to elevate its credibility.
Format: Short title (key words capitalized), including the year and the chapter number in brackets. Place of publication: publisher.
Example: Parental Bereavement Act 2018 (c. 24). London: Government Publications.
Citations For Interviews:
Format: Last name of interviewer, first initial, and last name of interviewee, first initial. (Year). Title/description of the interview
Example: Begley, S, Garten, I. (2017). Who Ina Garten Would Invite to a Fantasy Dinner Party
On the whole, when viewing referencing and citations with a focused lens, it becomes quite apparent that the importance of them cannot easily be relegated into the background. Instead, for students, they should hold the utmost importance, as they are a key player and crucial element in refining the caliber of the paper they craft.